Pre-invasion plans and assessments

  • Desert Crossing: 1999 wargame on Iraq's invasion (04 Nov 2006)

    In 1999 the US Army's Central Command (CENTCOM) conducted a series of wargames to assess potential outcomes of invading Iraq to unseat Saddam Hussein. The exercise's reports - uncovered in November 2006 by George Washington University's National Security Archive - argued that even with the use of 400,000 troops, an invasion and occupation would likely cause bloodshed, ethnic fragmentation and regional instability. CENTCOM's then leader, General Zinni, argues that the findings of "Desert Crossing" were ignored prior to Iraq's invasion.

  • The Future of Iraq Project (01 Sept 2006)

    From October 2001, US State Department planners brought together over 200 engineers, lawyers, businesspeople, doctors and other experts to plan Iraq's future after Saddam. The New York Times has cited defense department officials as saying that the 'Future of Iraq' project was largely ignored after the 2003 invasion. The Project's 13-volume recommendations, as well as preliminary documents, have been made public by George Washington University's National Security Archive.